UNIFYING FORCE OF HINDUISM: THE HAREKRSNA MOVEMENT
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However, there is large account of his interactions with this Deity in Caitanya caritamrita, the foundational book for the Gaudiya Vaishnavas. Supreme deity. Vishnu Krishna Rama. Important deities.
Related traditions. Mandala Publishing. History of Bengali Literature. Sahitya Akademi th. Vaisnavism Saivism and Minor Religious Systems.
Unifying Force Hinduism Harekrsna Movement by Adhikary Haripada
Asian Educational Services. Vallabha Vedantic system is the same as his predecessor Vishnuswami. This Vishnuswami was the son of a councillor of a Dravida vassal under Emperior of Delhi. Page 31 O. New York: Oxford University Press.
Retrieved Its historical usage is thus an umbrella term that identifies many related religious and philosophical traditions that are not clearly part of another Indian tradition, such as Buddhism and Jainism. However, many of the ideas and practices commonly associated with Hinduism can be found in adjacent Indian religio-philosophical traditions, such as Buddhism and Jainism. Moreover, some of them are not common to all Hindu thinkers.
If it were the case that a belief in karma is common to all Hindu philosophies, and only Hindu philosophies, then we would have a clear doctrinal criterion for identifying Hinduism. Moreover, it is not evident that it is embraced by all sources that we consider Hindu. For instance, the doctrine of karma seems to be absent from much of the Vedas.
Karma is not a sufficient criterion of Hinduism, and it likely is not a necessary condition either. Polytheism, or the worship of many deities, is often identified as a distinctive feature of Hinduism. However, it is not true that all Hindus are polytheists. We could identify Hinduism as the set of religious views that recognize the divinity or exalted status of a core set of Indic deities, but this too would not provide a way to separate Hinduism from Buddhism and Jainism. Belief in certain deities might constitute a necessary condition of Hinduism, but it is not a sufficient criterion.
This approach will not do, for not all views that we consider Hindu recognize the validity of all of these values. This attempt to define Hinduism in terms of a simple doctrine fails, for some of what passes for dharma ethics, morality or duty in the context of particular schools of Hindu philosophical thought share much with non-Hindu, but Indian schools of thought.
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Also, there is sufficient variation amongst the schools of Hindu philosophy on moral matters that makes defining Hindu philosophy solely on the basis of a shared moral doctrine impossible. If there is a core moral theory common to all Hindu schools, it is likely to be so thin that it will also be found as a component of other Indian religions. Thus, an ethical theory might be a necessary criterion of Hinduism, but it is insufficient. Finally, one might attempt to identify Hinduism with the institution of a caste system that carves society into a specified set of classes whose natures dispose them and obligate them to certain occupations in life.
This approach to defining Hinduism is essentially a rehabilitation of the idea that some core moral doctrine cements Hinduism together. There are two problems with this approach that renders it unhelpful to identifying Hinduism. Dhammapada ch. XXVI; cf. Yet, the term continues to be useful because it centers on a stance that separates Hindu thinkers from Buddhist, Jain, or Sikh thinkers.
The stance in question is openness to the provisional validity of a core set of Hindu texts. At the center of the canon of Hindu texts is the Vedas, followed by a large body of literature of secondary religious importance, which largely derive their legitimacy from Vedic thought. Non-systematic Hindu philosophy is comprised of the philosophical elements of the primary and secondary bodies of canonical Hindu texts, while the systematic Hindu philosophies, which also adopt the congenial disposition towards the Vedas, find their definitive expressions in formal philosophical texts authored by professional philosophers.
Finally, Neo-Hindu philosophy of late likewise adopts a positive disposition to the Vedas, and hence constitutes the latest offering in the history of Hindu philosophy. The Vedas are a large corpus, originally committed to memory and transmitted orally from teacher to student. On the basis of linguistic variations in the corpus, contemporary scholars are of the opinion that the Vedas were composed at various points during approximately a year span that can be no later than B. The Vedas are composed in an Indo-European language that is loosely referred to as Sanskrit, but much of it is in an ancient precursor to Sanskrit, more properly called Vedic.
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However, the earlier portion of the Vedas is not entirely devoid of lofty or philosophical significance. Many of the mantras resurface in the latter portion of the Vedas as dense expressions of metaphysical theses. This is the idea that the universe is a closed ethical system, supported by a system of reciprocal sacrifice and obligation.
Hindu Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Four major commentarial schools evolved to interpret the import of the later portions of the Vedas. Over time, however, translations into vernacular languages became popular, and additional texts were authored in vernaculars.
The focal events of the two epics likely occurred between B. Thapar p. Manu X. Their dominant concern however is to prescribe the specific duties and privileges of each caste. The idea of ritual expiation can be understood as a procedure concerned with alleviating ritual impurity. Core Hindu canonical texts—the Vedas—form the textual backdrop against which many of the systematic Hindu philosophies are articulated.
However, they do not exhaust the import of Hindu philosophy for two main reasons. First, the Vedas are not composed with the intention of being systematic treaties on philosophical issues. They leave many issues of philosophy relatively untouched. Secondly, the core Hindu canonical texts are not canonical in the same way for all Hindus. By and large, those we tend to regard as Hindu accord some type of provisional authority to both the Vedas, and the secondary Vedic literature.
However, the authority accorded is something that Hindu thinkers have disagreed upon. The question seems particularly pertinent in cases like Buddhist and Jain philosophy, which have all had rich philosophical histories. As a rule, systematic Indian philosophy Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism was recorded in Sanskrit, the pan-Indian language of scholarship, after the end of the Vedic period.
While scholars are confident about the approximate dates that the texts of systematic Indian philosophy handed down to us were written cf. Moreover, most of the schools of Hindu philosophy have existed side by side.
Thus, the order of explication of the systematic schools of Hindu philosophy follows the conventional order of explication and not any particular historical order. The founder of this school is the sage Gautama 2nd cent. Perception arises when the senses make contact with the object of perception.
This applies as much to mundane objects, as it does to the self, and God. The opening verse states that the topic of the text is the elaboration of dharma ethics or morality. It is attributed to the legendary sage Kapila of antiquity, though we have no extant work left to us by him. It is eternally distinct from Nature, but it enters into complex configurations of Nature biological bodies in order to experience and to have knowledge. It lacks the ability to be an agent. Prima facie , the bronze quality appears to correspond to tamas , silver to rajas , and sattva to gold. While Indian philosophers had an important impact on the course of ancient Greek philosophy through Pyrrho of Elis, who traveled to India in the 3rd cent.
This suggests that both Plato 4th cent. A relatively important point of cosmological difference is that the Yoga system does not consider the Mind or the Intellect Mahat to be the greatest creation of Nature. In order to facilitate the calming of the mind, the Yoga system prescribes several moral and practical means.
The eight limbs include:. When [one] becomes steadfast in… abstention from falsehood, [one] gets the power of obtaining for [oneself] and others the fruits of good deeds, without [others] having to perform the deeds themselves. When [one] becomes steadfast in… abstention from theft, all wealth comes. In this penultimate state, the aspirant has all their past sins washed away by a cloud of dharma virtue, or morality. Critics of the Yoga system charge that it cannot be accepted on moral grounds for it has as its ultimate goal a state of isolation.
On this view, kaivalya is understood literally as a state of social isolation see Bharadwaja. Given the uncommon journey that the yogi takes, it is also natural to conclude that the state of kaivalya is the state characterized by having no peers, owing to the radical shift in perspective that the yogi attains through yoga. Foundationalism is the view that certain knowledge claims are independently valid which means that no further justificatory reasons are either possible or necessary to justify these claims , and moreover, that these independently valid knowledge claims are able to serve as justifications for beliefs that are based upon them.
Such independently valid knowledge claims are thought to be justificatory foundations of a system of beliefs. If the word ceased to exist as soon as uttered then no one could speak of any thing to others…. From this it follows that the word denotes the Class. If they do not have their meaning eternally and independent of subjective associations between referents and words, communication would be impossible.
The latter portion of the Vedas is a vast corpus that does not elaborate a single doctrine in the manner of a monograph. Rather, it is a collection of speculative texts of the Vedas with overlapping themes and images. These are the 8th century C. These three are not the only commentaries. They principally differ on the metaphysics of individual selves and Brahman , though there are also some striking ethical differences between these schools as well.
However, in and of itself, it has no power to make its will manifest.